MRSA

MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that
is resistant to certain antibiotics. These
antibiotics include methicillin and other
more common antibiotics such as
oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

Severe or potentially life-threatening
MRSA infections occur mostly in
hospitals. Outside the hospital  most
MRSA infections are skin infections.

Acute bacterial skin and skin structure
infections (ABSSSI), a new FDA
classification for complicated skin and
skin structure infections, are a
significant and growing problem
throughout the world.
ABSSSI are infections that involve
deeper tissue or require surgical
intervention (e.g. cellulitis, major
cutaneous abscesses, and infected
wounds) or are associated with a
significant underlying disease (e.g.,
diabetes or systemic
immunosuppression) that complicates
response to therapy.

Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating
bacteria)   used to be caused almost
exclusively by one type of strep
bacteria. Now there's a scary trend:
drug-resistant superbugs like the
staph germ MRSA increasingly are
able to make "flesh-eating" toxins and
cause nightmarish infections.


ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF
MRSA

A number of premium-priced hospital
brands will be launched over the next
decade.
These include Forest Laboratories',
AstraZeneca's, and Takeda's Teflaro
(ceftaroline);
Novartis's and Paratek
Pharmaceuticals' PTK 0796; and
Trius Therapeutics' torezolid.

Teflaro  and torezolid currently have
the best commercial outlook.

TEFLARO
The FDA granted approval to Teflaro
for the treatment of patients suffering
from acute bacterial skin and skin
structure infection and community
acquired bacterial pneumonia in
October 2010. Forest Labs launched
the product in March 2011. It sold  
$2.7 million worth of it in the second
quarter of 2011.

Teflaro is  an injectable antibiotic to
treat adults with community acquired
bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute
bacterial skin and skin structure
infections (ABSSSI), including
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA).

Teflaro is an antibacterial agent in a
class of drugs known as
cephalosporins, which act by
interfering with the bacterial cell wall.
The safety and effectiveness of
Teflaro was evaluated in four, Phase 3
clinical trials in patients ages 18 years
and older (two each in CABP and in
ABSSSI). In the CABP trials, the
comparator antibacterial treatment was
Rocephin (ceftriaxone) and in the
ABSSSI trials, the comparator
antibacterial treatment was
Vancomycin plus Azactam.

In all trials Teflaro was comparably
effective to existing treatments.


TOREZOLID
The company Trius is currently
conducting Phase 3 clinical trials in
acute bacterial skin and skin structure
infections,applying torezolid phosphate
(TR-701), an IV and orally
administered second generation
oxazolidinone.

There is only one approved first
generation oxazolidinone,  Zyvox  
(linezolid)  made by Pfizer, which is
currently the leading branded antibiotic
for serious gram-positive infections.

Bayer Pharma of Germany will pay
Trius Therapeutics as much as $94
million for the development and
commercialization of the San Diego
company's lead antibiotic in China,
Japan, most other Asian countries,
Latin America, Africa and the Middle
East. As a leader in the anti-bacterial
market in China and emerging
markets, Bayer was an ideal partner
for the drug


The deal should speed the launch of
torezolid phosphate in China, where
anti-bacterials are among the fastest
growing categories of medications
largely because of the widespread
need to treat lung infections, Trius
officials said during a conference call
with stock analysts.

The company believes  torezolid
phosphate (TR-701) offers a number
of important potential advantages over
linezolid including greater potency,
once daily dosing, predictable drug
exposure, a shorter course of therapy,
bacterial killing activity, lower
frequency of resistance, activity
against linezolid-resistant bacterial
strains and an improved safety profile.

Trius launched a phase 3 study of
torezolid last fall in patients with MRSA
and other acute bacterial skin and skin
structure infections.

Enrollment in the trial should be
completed before the end of the year,
and early results could be reported in
the first quarter of 2012


PTK 0796
Novartis has gained exclusive
worldwide right to market PTK 0796, in
2009 from Paratek Pharmaceuticals, a
privately held company based in
Boston, Massachusetts.

This is a potentially  first once-daily
broad-spectrum antibiotic that can be
given by intravenous infusion or oral
tablet to treat a wide variety of life-
threatening infections, including MRSA.
The drug is in Phase 3 trials.



UNIVERSITY OF LIMERICK-LED TEAM
DEVELOPS HOSPITAL TEXTILES TO
KILL MRSA SUPERBUG
A European research team, co-
ordinated by the Materials and Surface
Science Institute (MSSI) at the
University of Limerick, announced  the
development of textiles which will kill
the MRSA (Methicillin Resistant
Staphylococcus Aureus) superbug.

The BioElectricSurface Research
Team has utilised nano-particles on
textiles which are used in hospital
drapes, bed linens, and upholstery.
The Nano-materials, which are a
thousand times smaller than a human
hair, possess properties that the team
has harnessed to develop this
technology to fight MRSA

The nano-particles are photo-active;
therefore, when light hits the nano-
particles they are activated, and emit a
chemical that works against the MRSA
bug. As long as those particles are
present, the material will continue to
function as a textile that will not
transport the MRSA bug, thus reducing
the spread of MRSA in a hospital.

Staff working in a hospital who may
tend to many different patients over
the course of a working shift would be
ideal candidates for wearing uniforms
made from this textile, which should aid
the reduction in the spread of MRSA.

The US and European market size for
medical textiles was estimated to be
over $7 billion (5 billion euro).



NEW RAPID TEST FOR MRSA
Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.  
announced that the U.S. Food & Drug
Administration (FDA) cleared its new
LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test for
the detection of methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for
clinical use in the United States.
The LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test
is a qualitative in-vitro diagnostic test
for the direct detection of nasal
colonization with bacterial MRSA, and it
is designed to aid in the prevention
and control of MRSA infections in
healthcare settings. Roche's new real-
time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
test delivers rapid results (within two
hours) and appears to have better
sensitivity compared to direct culture-
based methods.

High rates of infection, mortality, and
high costs of treatment due to
healthcare-associated infections
caused by MRSA are a critical issue
for healthcare facilities worldwide. In
response to this public health issue, an
increasing number of states have
passed legislation requiring mandatory
reporting and/or screening for
healthcare-associated infections.

The LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test
is performed on Roche's LightCycler
2.0 Instrument with nasal swab
specimens from patients suspected of
MRSA colonization.




CEFTAROLINE AND   NXL104
TESTED FOR TREATMENT OF MRSA
Shahriar Mobashery is a world-
renowned expert in antibiotic
resistance and his  Notre Dame team
investigated two new anti-MRSA β-
Lactam antibiotics from the
pharmaceutical company Cerexa Inc.,
which are currently undergoing clinical
trials. Both are broad-spectrum
antibiotics, but their activities against
MRSA and multi-drug-resistant MRSA
have been especially noteworthy.

β-Lactam (e.g., penicillin) and
glycopeptide (e.g., vancomycin)
antibiotics are designed to impair the
bacterial cell wall and inhibit the
process of cross-linking, causing
bacterial cells to burst and die.
In their latest paper, Mobashery and
his team reveal that the new Cerexa
antibiotics appear to interact with PBP
2a in a unique way. The antibiotics
mimic some of the interactions of the
cell wall with PBP 2a, whereby the
enzyme is "tricked" to open up as it
attempts its physiological function.
Once this opening of PBP 2a takes
place, its function is inhibited by the
novel antibiotics, resulting in bacterial
cell death. "Both antibiotics are highly
effective in killing MRSA," Mobashery
said. "It's a promise that awaits the
outcome of the clinical trials."



GSK 299423 TESTED FOR MRSA
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has a new
compound, called GSK 299423,
against antibiotic-resistant strains of
bacteria such as Staphylococus
aureus, including methicillin resistance
S. aureus (MRSA), and against gram
negative bacteria like E. coli,
Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and
Acinetobacter.