Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in
the prostate gland. The prostate is a
small, walnut-sized structure that
makes up part of a man's reproductive
system. It wraps around the urethra,
the tube that carries urine out of the
body.
UCLA researchers reported  that they
have discovered the identity of the
prostate cell that goes awry to produce
cancer, a finding that could lead to
new approaches to prevention and
treatment of this common plague in
men. Most researchers had previously
believed that prostate tumors
originated in the so-called luminal cells
because tumor cells look like luminal
cells. But immunologist Owen N. Witte
of UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive
Cancer Center and his colleagues
have found that it actually arises in
basal cells, a more stem cell-like
component of the gland.


FDA APPROVES ZYTIGA FOR
PROSTATE CANCER
In April 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration approved Zytiga in
combination with prednisone to treat
patients with a certain type of
late-stage prostate cancer in patients
who have been previously treated with
chemotherapy.

Zytiga, made by Centocor Ortho
Biotech, a unit of Johnson & Johnson ,
is a pill that targets a protein called
cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1),
which plays an important role in the
production of testosterone. The drug
works by decreasing the production of
this hormone that would stimulate
cancer cells to continue growing.

In prostate cancer, the male sex
hormone testosterone stimulates
prostate tumors to grow. Drugs or
surgery are used to reduce
testosterone production or to block
testosterone's effects. However,
sometimes prostate cancer can
continue to grow even when
testosterone levels are low. Men with
these cancers are said to have
castration-resistant prostate cancer,
which is the type of cancer Zytiga was
approved to treat.

The company said Zytiga would cost
about $5,000 per month. A typical
course of therapy is about eight
months.


ALPHARADIN FROM BAYER FOR
PROSTATE CANCER: TRIAL
STOPPED FOR EFFICIENCY
Alpharadin performed so well in a
recent late stage trial that it was
stopped due to impressive overall
survival data. Those patients who had
been on placebo were allowed to take
it.

In August 2011 FDA granted the drug
a fast track status.

Alpharadin is an injectable form of
radiotherapy for advanced prostate
cancer. It is hoped the shots of
Alpharadin will combat secondary
tumors in bones which can leave
patients crippled by pain.

In June 2011, Algeta and Bayer
Pharma AG (Bayer) announced that
the phase III trial evaluating Alpharadin
(radium-233 chloride) for treating
symptomatic bone metastases in  
patients met its primary endpoint by
significantly improving overall survival.
The trial was stopped early based on
this positive result and a
recommendation from the Independent
Data Monitoring Committee.

Radium-223 chloride is being
developed by Algeta (a Norwegian
company) with Bayer Pharma AG
(formerly Bayer Schering Pharma AG).

The development of bone metastases
represents a serious development for
cancer patients as they are associated
with a dramatic decline in patient
health and quality of life, ultimately
leading to death.

Bone metastases represent a major
unmet medical need, occurring
frequently in certain late-stage
cancers, e.g. prostate (in up to 90%
patients), breast (up to 60 %) and lung
(up to 40%).



HYPERTHERMIA TREATS PROSTATE
CANCER WITH HEAT
Hyperthermia is a cancer treatment in
which cancer is treated with heat (up to
113°F). High temperature can damage
and kill cancer cells, usually with
minimal injury to normal tissues. In
clinical trials. Equipment is made by
BSD Medical Corp

Dr. Friedrich Douwes, Medical Director
of St. George Hospital in Bad Aibling,
Germany helped to develop the
Oncotherm radio-wave hyperthermia
treatment, which heats the entire
prostate without harming healthy
tissue. He has successfully treated
thousands of prostate cancer patients,
many from the USA. In use for over 25
years, radio-wave hyperthermia is the
treatment of choice in Europe for many
cancers.



OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
EBRT: External Beam Radiotherapy;

Radical Prostatectomy; Keyhole
Radical Prostatectomy;

Brachytherapy;

HIFU: Hight Intensity Focused
Ultrasound: heats the tumor to 100C to
kill it;

HIFU by Focal HIFU;

HIFU by Ablatherm; Conformal
Radiotherapy;

Cryotherapy: small needles are
inserted into the tumor; which is frozen
to -100C using argon gas;

Radiotherapy;

Hormon Treatment;

Chemotherapy;

RapidArc Technology by Varian;

Novalis Tx System by Varian and
Brainlab;

Cyberknife by Accuray Inc;

Da Vinci robotic surgery by Intuitive
Surgical;

Chemotherapy:DOCETAXEL (brand
name Taxotere)